Sápuskeljar (Soapnuts) eða Sapindus er ættkvísl fimm til tólf tegunda runna eða lítilla trjáa í Lychee ættinni, Sapindaceae,
is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Lycheefamily, Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Old World and New World. The genus includes both deciduous and evergreen species. Members of the genus are commonly known as soapberries or soapnuts because the fruit pulp is used to make soap. The generic name is derived from the Latin words sapo, meaning "soap", and indicus, meaning "of India".
The leaves are alternate, 15–40 cm (5.9–15.7 in) long, pinnate (except in S. oahuensis, which has simple leaves), with 14-30 leaflets, the terminal leaflet often absent. The flowers form in large panicles, each flower small, creamy white. The fruit is a small leathery-skinned drupe 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter, yellow ripening blackish, containing one to three seeds.
The drupes (soapnuts) contain saponins which are a natural surfactant. They have been used for washing by ancient people in Asia as well as Native Americans.
Soapnuts have historically been used in folk remedies but, as the effectiveness of such treatments has not been subjected to scientific scrutiny, there is no confirmed health benefit of using soapnuts to treat any human disease.
Sapindus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) species including Endoclitamalabaricus. Kernel extracts of soapnut disrupt the activity of enzymes of larvae and pupae and inhibits the growth of the mosquitoAedes aegypti, an important vector of viral diseases.
What is Soapnut ?
Soapnuts grow on "soapnut trees", mainly in India and Nepal. The botanic family of the "soap tree plants" includes more than 2,000 species. Soapnut with its large leaves, is a handsome deciduous tree found in India. This tree belongs to the main plant order Sapindaceae and family Sapindeae
The dried fruit of Soapnut is most valuable part of the plant. Its fleshy portion contains saponin, which is a good substitute for washing soap. The soapnut which is mainly used for washing purposes can be divided into two different types: The most widespread one is the "Sapindus Mukorossi" which is grown in North India and Nepal ("soapnut tree of North India"). The "Mukorossi" is also known as "big soapnut". Waschnüsse
The "Sapindus Trifoliatus" however is the "small soapnut" . "Trifoliatus" is widespread in South India ("soapnut tree of South India") where the climate is warmer and milder. You can clearly see the difference between the two soapnuts
The name "Sapindus" speaks for itself and reveals the soapnuts' main characteristic: It contains saponins which have the ability to clean and wash. The fruit of the soapnut tree produces saponins in order to repel varmints, fungus and bacteria. Approximately 15% of the soapnut's shell consists of highly concentrated saponins (= 10% of the whole nut). Saponins has got excellent cleaning capabilities:
It removes dirt from clothing - not only highly-effective but also gentle. Because of its mildness, it preserves the colours and the structure of your valuable clothing longer than normal detergents. It's so gentle that it's even not necessary to add a softener: The laundry turns out amazingly soft! Because of these characteristics, soapnuts are the perfect detergent. Soapnuts remnants can be deposited on a compost heap (No harmful waste for environment) Waschnüsse
What are other types of soapnuts ?
The soapnut which is mainly used for washing purposes can be divided into two different types: The most widespread one is the "Sapindus Mukorossi" which is grown in North India and Nepal ("soapnut tree of North India"). The "Mukorossi" is also known as "big soapnut"
The "Sapindus Trifoliatus" however is the "small soapnut" . "Trifoliatus" is widespread in South India ("soapnut tree of South India") where the climate is warmer and milder
Which is the best soapnut ?
Why to use soapnuts?
Its Totally Natural, Gentle to Human hands & body no chemicals involved /Grown wildly/help underprivileged to earn livelihood. It removes dirt from clothing - not only highly-effective but also gentle. Because of its mildness, it preserves the colours and the structure of your valuable clothing longer than normal detergents. It's so gentle that it's even not necessary to add a softener: The laundry turns out amazingly soft! Because of these characteristics, soapnuts are the perfect detergent.
How to use soapnuts ?
Most people use soapnuts as a natural laundry detergent. However, there are myriad uses for soapnuts.
Natural Laundry Detergent
As harvested, soapnuts are a small, round, waxy ball. As they are introduced to water, they release saponin, a natural cleanser. To wash your clothes, simply place 7-8 soapnuts in a small muslin bag , and drop it in the washer. Your clothes will come out clean, with a fresh, natural scent. If you wish to change the scent of your clean laundry, you can add a few drops of essential oils to the wash.
Crumble seven or eight soapnuts into a small saucepan, and add four cups of water. Bring the mixture to a boil, then let simmer for 5-10 minutes. Pour the liquid into a container (an empty shampoo bottle is great), then discard the used soapnuts. By default, soapnut shampoo does not contain many suds. This is not a problem, but a new user may have a tendency to use to much at once. If you want to make your shampoo more 'foamy' (like store-bought shampoo), you can place it in a pump bottle. This shampoo will leave your hair feeling soft and clean. If it feels slightly stiffer than normal when dry, too much shampoo may have been applied. Using less next time will correct the problem.
Powder, Shampoo and Skin Cleaner
Soapnut powder will leave your skin and hair feeling soft and clean. Apply soapnut powder directly while you bathe, or mix it with a little water and put it in a bottle for ease of use.Waschnüsse
Add a teaspoon of soapnut powder to a bowl of water, and soak your fruits and vegetables. Chemical spray and pesticide residue will be washed away, leaving clean, wholesome food. Be sure to rinse the food before eating.
General Purpose Cleaner
Soapnut can be used to clean almost anything. A little soapnut powder and water goes a long way. Windows, carpets, even the pets can be cleaned using soapnut. PureIndia sells soapnut in its harvested form, but it can be powderized easily using a coffee grinder or a simple pestle and mortar.